Reading (at least the start of) this page is highly recommended before reading the Advanced Features page.
You can also choose to read the Medium article I wrote about this subject. It has more details and it goes through some older implementations of the concept too.
The algorithm uses the lower part of the array (addresses 0-[almost n]) as blocks of adjacent cells.
The last cells in the array, which can’t form a block, are initialized and accessed normally.
The 1 extra bit, called the flag, is set to 1 if the whole lower part of the array is written. Otherwise, it’s set to 0.
If the flag is 1, then the array is fully written and can be accessed as a regular array.
Digging Deeper (for flag==0)
A block consists of two half-blocks, each is a union of
The lower part of the array is divided into 2 parts - UCA (lower) and WCA (upper).
The UCA consists of the blocks 0-[b-1], while WCA consists of the blocks [b-last_block].
b, and the curret default value of the array, are saved in the |…|b|def| part of the last block.
Initialization is done block-wise, i.e. a whole block is initialized at once.
Two blocks with indices (b1,b2) are considered chained if b1/b2 are in both UCA/WCA and
blocks[b1].firstHalf.ptr == b2 && blocks[b2].firstHalf.ptr == b1.
UCA-block is considered initialized if it is not chained,
and the block’s data is saved in the two half-blocks of the said block.
WCA-block is considered initialized if it is chained,
and the block’s data is saved in the second-half-block of both the said block and its chained block.
In that sense - every 2 chained blocks have exactly 1 written block, and that’s the magic of it all.
When reading, the default value is returned for an uninitialized block, or the cell’s data
(found in the same block, or the one chained to it) for an initialized one.
When writing - we might increment b by one, in order to use an extra block (to chain it somehow).
More background and implementation details can be found in my Medium article.